PostHeaderIcon Use Action Songs to Help Children Remember and Learn Theoretical Concepts

Use Action Songs to Help Children Remember and Learn Theoretical Concepts

Children, particularly young children do have a very short attention span. If children in your class are bored they will quickly get fidgety and disruptive to the rest of the class. In order to become and effective music teacher, you have to use your creativity. One way to grab their full attention is through educational music games.

Young children have so much energy, that they often don’t know what to do with it! You can keep them focussed and interested in your lessons by using Action Songs and Educational Music Games. Action songs are very popular especially to toddlers and children. Here are some ways on how you can make use of them in the classroom:

1. Use action songs as motivation. When they start the lesson do a couple of songs that they know straight away. A warm up like this will get preschool children moving and ready for the rest of the lesson.

2. Use your action songs all day, in many different subject areas. You can use songs and games to teach almost anything in the early preschool environment, including Literacy, Numeracy and Geography or History.

3. Instead of letting the children work on music worksheets, you can use educational music games like action songs as substitute. Since they are in the form of music, they are easier to remember and even memorized. Your activities will be enriched and enhanced by engaging in games as part of your lessons.

4. You will help develop the child’s creativity and imagination through games. Children can do amazing things when asked to creatively come up with actions for a song. Excellent values of teamwork, co-operation and helpfulness are also helped by using these sort of activities.

By using some of these action songs in the classroom, hopefully you can improve the chances of Music Theory being popular with the students.

PostHeaderIcon Utility Of English In Free India

Utility Of English In Free India

In spite of having a history of centuries of foreign rule, Hindi has stood the test of time and circumstance. English entered into the confines of India with the Englishman who ruled over India for more than a century. In that period of time, the Britishers saw that English language, penetrated into the very roots of India’s education.

However, the controversy of the utility or non-utility of English in India arose with the departure of the Britishers and the coming of the Indian regime. The need for continuing English in our educational system felt being questioned. People believed and rightly so too, to a great extent that continuance of the English language would indicate our acceptance of at least mental slavery of the outgoing regime. This prejudice against the spread and continuation of the language has been brewing for a long time. It is the language of our foreign rulers and so, people feel that it is a reminder of our slavery and thus must be dispensed with.

Besides, the plea taken by the Anti-English lobby is that, even the Constitution says that, English may continue in India only for “official purposes” and also that, it shall continue so, only for a period of 15 years, from the commencement of the constitution.

The anti-English reaction is of course very natural, but not quite rational. For, on the one hand while an independent country must have its own language, India being a multi lingual country cannot press for any one language to be made a national language. The presentation of one, on the national scene becomes an emotional issue and the project has to be shelved. In these circumstances even if we may not work for the further spread of English, we cannot eliminate it from the Indian scenario. English will apparently never lose its importance in India or anywhere else in the world.

Regarding education through the medium of English, this can be given a rethinking. For, the majority of the masses in India happen to live in the rural areas for whom, imparting of knowledge in their mother tongue would be much easier than doing so in English, a foreign medium of instruction. There is no doubt that medium of instruction being English, the local vernacular has remained at a low level of development and even the culture has been hard hit. This is because a language besides a mode of conveying ideas becomes a living embodiment of attitudes and beliefs. Thus, the study of the English language which is an embodiment of English authors, has thrust upon us the English views of life which have been, and continue to be a hazard to our cultural heritage.

The study of English weakens our very national structure for, what is a nation without its own national language to be proud of? It is really degrading for a country to give so much importance to a foreign language and that also the language of its foreign rulers.

However, the negative side is not the only one to be considered. There is undoubtedly a very major reason for us to continue study of English. First and foremost at present is that there is no one language that can take the position of a national language. While English is known in every part of the country so, as the situation stands today, we can say that even when we don’t want it, English has acquired the place of at least a link language more than any other Indian language. So, we can hardly think of dispensing with this language. At present we can see it as the strongest bond for our national integration.

Let us consider the wealth of the English language. It is a rich language in which new addition of thousands of words come annually. The language is a living one, unlike our traditional language Sanskrit which is today absolutely dormant.

Besides the richness of the language it is a huge reservoir of knowledge. In these days of scientific and technological advancement, we cannot afford to be left out of the area of advanced studies. All this is however available in English alone. So, in case we wish to steer the country towards modern knowledge and advancement, we can not do without the English language. We can never hope to participate in any international meets if we do not develop our knowledge of English as, this is the one and only language used and understood by most of the countries of the world. It would not be daring to say that, if there is anything that has led India towards progress, it is the introduction of the educated India into the flow of modern life and that, Indians have achieved by the study of this language. Even Mahatma Gandhi once said, “I regard that English language as an open window for peeping into Western thought and science. The study of the English language is therefore necessary to induce us into new worlds of thought and feeling, to make our outlook scientific, rational and up-to-date”. It is thus felt that, there is no harm at all to take the best of anyone.

India has so many languages and each individual is emotionally attached to his language then, how will there ever be a consensus in bringing out a National language. So, it is rightly felt that the English language could continue to be our language till Hindi is developed to the standard of taking over its place and becoming the national language. English has to continue as the link language through the length and breadth of this sub-continent. It should also be the medium of instruction in all educational institutions so that the students get an education into the latest trends of science and technology.

Let us forget emotions for Hindi becoming a national language and be more practical and use English as long as we need it. We must stop agitating against English and realize all the benefits we have reaped and will reap from the study of this language.

PostHeaderIcon Understanding Kurt Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem

Understanding Kurt Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem

Kurt Gödel was a mathematician born in Austria in 1906. The Gödel family made their money in textiles, but Kurt’s father was not a well-educated man. His mother, on the other hand, had undergone formal schooling, and instilled a firm belief in getting a good education in Kurt. As a result, he completed his studies at the top of his class in high school, and then went on to earn several degrees from the University of Vienna, including his doctorate in mathematics. What is so ironic about Gödel’s life is that, though he spent nearly his entire life studying theories of logic, he was a hypochondriac who feared being poisoned. He died from a lack of nutrition, and starvation, because he was convinced that someone was trying to kill him by putting something harmful in his food.

His most famous work, still discussed today, is the Incompleteness Theorem in mathematics, which consists of two parts. One of the main themes of his work suggests that “the axiom system must be incomplete,” and that not everything can be sufficiently proven when it comes to the axiomatic mathematical system (Devlin 2002). Originally written in 1931, his theorems have caused much controversy about what math and logic should truly mean, since many theorists believe in the absolute truths and outcomes that math has to offer. Gödel challenged this vein of thought, and created the belief that there might be more than one correct answer when it comes to problem solutions.

What Gödel’s theorem seems to do is it “imposes some [sort] of profound limitation on knowledge, science, mathematics” (Gödel’s Theorem 2007). It takes the concept of axioms, which are indisputable truths, and places a certain level of questioning upon them, so that it sort of breaks apart logical answers and conclusions that we may come to when figuring out a problem. This can be incredibly dangerous on the surface, because it may (and probably has) opened up an indefinite number of solutions to problems. In doing so, there is no distinct way to prove that something is correct, so then the sciences we should see as definitive, become a bit more subjective. Gödel’s critics feel that this type of thinking throws everything off balance, and can interfere with other scientific principles.

The first part of Gödel’s theory seriously questions the usage of proofs in mathematics, which specifically affects the area of geometry. Thus, for every proven mathematical statement, another one can be conversely constructed that is not necessarily provable. They may be implied by the set of axioms, because they are able to be constructed, given the conditions of the axioms. But, all the same, that does not mean that they should be constructed, because, in turn, they may end up contradicting themselves. What is accepted as truth in math is not necessarily proof. The two terms are not interchangeable according to Gödel, which would lead us to prove concepts that are not necessarily valid. This might seem like a waste of time, but the best test of something’s validity might be to in fact explore other facets of an argument in order to eliminate any shade of doubt.

The second part of this incompleteness theory involves consistency for provable theorems. It suggests that, somewhere in the many linear equations to be solved, there is something that can eventually break off, and not be in line with the rest of the proof that these mathematical concepts are in fact true. When defining natural numbers, this actually defies logic, because Gödel states that a formal system which aims to do so can specifically and definitively prove these numbers. Somewhere in that number system will be some statement or axiom that will be neither true nor false. And thus, since it cannot be proven, does not make it decidedly so.

As with any theory, there are limitations on Gödel’s incompleteness theorem that allow for some debate. For example, just because one is questioning whether or not something is true, does not mean that all cases call for such. As an illustration, it could be seen in terms of the Ancient Greek Liar Paradox: “a person stands up and says ‘I am lying'; if the person is lying, then the statement is true, so they are not lying; and if they are not lying, the statement is false, so they are lying” (Devlin 2002). So, either way, it is neither true nor false, and thus not worth the effort in saying it. That is how many felt about Gödel’s theorem.

But, in any event, he did leave quite a mark on the world of mathematics because he chose to refute the status quo, and not simply accept proven mathematical concepts as true, because there are very few absolute truths, even when it comes to science.

References

Devlin, K. (2002). Kurt Godel—separating truth from proof in mathematics. Science,
298(5600), 1899-1901. Retrieved November 22, 2007 from Academic Search
Premier.
“Godel’s Theorem.” (2007). Center for the Study of Complex Systems, University of
Michigan. Retrieved November 22, 2007 from
~crshalizi/notebooks/godels-theorem.html.